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Here is a link to this document in Portuguese: Portuguese pindex.html.

Mathematical Circles are for students of high school age or younger who want to increase their abilities to reason about mathematical problems. Students who study in circles learn to do mathematical olympiad-style problems (essay or proofs, not quick answer).

The web pages for a couple of the local circles are here:

Bay Area Circles and
BAMO (Bay Area Mathematical Olympiad)

San Jose State University
Math Circle

UC Berkeley Math Circle

An extensive discussion about how to lead a math circle can be obtained here:

So You're Going to Lead a Math Circle, or (in Postscript). (For some reason, the pdf version sometimes doesn't seem to load properly on an Apple Safari browser, but the Postscript version does.)

Here is the National Association of Math Circles website with links to existing circles, problems, lesson plans, and many other things.

For more lesson plans and for information on Teachers' Circles which are like math circles but aimed at teachers, go to the Math Teachers' Circle Network.

I have been volunteering time at three local circles (in Berkeley, San Jose, and Palo Alto, California) for the past nine years, and have prepared handouts for some of those sessions. Those handouts are almost all available here in both PostScript format (files with a .ps extension) or files in Adobe Acrobat format (files with a .pdf extension).

There is a series of workshops for teachers, called "teacher's circles", that may be of interest. Here is the website:

The 1,2,3,4 problem:

plustimesminus.pdf(72 KB)

Exploring Pascal's Triangle:

pascal.pdf(148 KB)

An Introduction to Zome:

ZomeIntro.pdf (504 KB)

Julia Robinson Zome Exercises (used for Julia Robinson Festival at Google and Pixar):

googlezome.pdf (148 KB)

An Unusual Way to Combine Numbers

numbercombine.pdf (216 KB)

A Game That's Not a Game

pilesubdivide.pdf (216 KB)

Mathematical Card Tricks

CardTricks.pdf (216 KB)

Conway's Rational Tangles

tangle.pdf (48 KB)

Huge numbers with short descriptions:

bignumbers.pdf (84 KB)

Geometry and Geography:

geography.pdf (60 KB)

Kenken:

kenken.pdf (92 KB)

pascal.pdf(148 KB)

How to Count Things:

counting.ps (94 KB)

counting.pdf (108 KB)

Solutions to problems in "How to Count Things":

solnscount.ps (100 KB)

solnscount.pdf (134 KB)

Combinations and Permutations:

comb.ps (37 KB)

comb.pdf (39 KB)

Combinatorics Problems:

combprobs.ps (47 KB)

combprobs.pdf (39 KB)

Counting Derangements (by Brian Conrey and Tom Davis):

derange.ps (61 KB)

derange.pdf (65 KB)

Catalan Numbers:

catalan.ps (428 KB)

catalan.pdf (132 KB)

Counting Poker Hands:

poker.ps (28 KB)

poker.pdf (21 KB)

Pólya's Counting Theory:

polya.ps (248 KB)

polya.pdf (168 KB)

nothing.ps (117 KB)

nothing.pdf (152 KB)

Infinity (Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers):

Infinity.ps (168 KB)

Infinity.pdf (158 KB)

Computability and Recursive Functions:

Computability.ps (222 KB)

Computability.pdf (180 KB)

inversion.pdf (308 KB)

Practical Calculation of Areas of Polygons:

polyarea.pdf (140 KB)

Introduction to Matrices:

Matrices.ps (165 KB)

Matrices.pdf (165 KB)

Geometric Transformations with Matrices:

Xforms.ps (125 KB)

Xforms.pdf (177 KB)

Classical Geometric Construction:

construct.ps (90 KB)

construct.pdf (86 KB)

Geometry of the Circle:

circles.ps(45 KB)

circles.pdf (28 KB)

Four Points on a Circle:

fourpoints.ps(135 KB)

fourpoints.pdf (122 KB)

Geometry for contests:

geometry.ps(106 KB)

geometry.pdf (107 KB)

Geometry and Geography:

geography.pdf (60 KB)

Polygons:

Polygons.ps (34 KB)

Polygons.pdf (33 KB)

Pick's Theorem:

pick.ps (413 KB)

pick.pdf (182 KB)

Euler's Theorem:

euler.ps (149 KB)

euler.pdf (82 KB)

Projective Geometry:

projective.ps (167 KB)

projective.pdf (162 KB)

Homogeneous Coordinates for Computer Graphics:

cghomogen.ps (149 KB)

cghomogen.pdf (182 KB)

Homogeneous Coordinates (slightly obsolete -- see above):

homogen.ps (50 KB)

homogen.pdf (53 KB)

Spline Curves:

curves.ps (173 KB)

curves.pdf (147 KB)

ZomeIntro.pdf (504 KB)

The Mathematics of Zome:

zome.pdf (3 MB)

Julia Robinson Zome Exercises (used for Julia Robinson Festival at Google and Pixar):

googlezome.pdf (148 KB)

hackenbush.pdf(168 KB)

Kenken:

kenken.pdf (92 KB)

A Game That's Not a Game

pilesubdivide.pdf (216 KB)

Mathematical Card Tricks

CardTricks.pdf (216 KB)

Mathematics of Sudoku:

sudoku.pdf (130 KB)

Mathematics of Mastermind:

mastermind.pdf (130 KB)

Binary Guessing (A two-color version of Mastermind):

bitmaster.pdf (130 KB)

compression.pdf (72 KB)

Units:

units.pdf (105 KB)

Iterated Functions:

iterated.pdf(664 KB)

Coloring:

coloring.pdf(96 KB)

An Unusual Way to Combine Numbers

numbercombine.pdf (216 KB)

Conway's Rational Tangles

tangle.pdf (48 KB)

An Introduction to the Riemann Integral

riemannint.pdf (92 KB)

Bin Packing Problems

binpacking.pdf (64 KB)

Introduction to Linear Diophantine Equations

diophantine.pdf (64 KB)

Practical Probability: Casino Odds and Sucker Bets

suckerbets.pdf (148 KB)

Graph Theory Problems and Solutions:

graphprobs.pdf (132 KB)

Mathematics of Geodesic Domes:

geodesic.pdf (520 KB)

Optics and Geometry with Applications to Photography:

optics.pdf (188 KB)

Huge numbers with short descriptions:

bignumbers.pdf (84 KB)

The relationship between decimals and fractions:

fractions.ps (189 KB)

fractions.pdf (197 K)

Permutation Groups and Rubik's Cube:

perm.ps (99 KB)

perm.pdf (111 K)

Mathematical Induction:

Induction.ps (129 KB)

Induction.pdf (183 KB)

Mathematical Induction Problems and Solutions:

indprobs.pdf (95 KB)

General Encryption:

crypto.ps (115 KB)

crypto.pdf (147 KB)

The RSA Encryption Algorithm:

RSA.ps (53 KB)

RSA.pdf (61 KB)

Elliptic Curve Cryptography:

ecc.pdf (61 KB)

Mathematical Biology:

mathbio.ps (292 KB)

mathbio.pdf (92 KB)

San Jose State Circle Contest:

contest.ps (34 KB)

contest.pdf (28 KB)

Hints for Competing in Olympiad-Style Contests

solvit.ps (54 KB)

solvit.pdf (57 KB)

To view PostScript files, you may download the GhostScript programs.

To view Acrobat files, you can download the Adobe Acrobat Reader.

I prepared a following document for people who are interested in leading math circles. If you wish to make a nice version to hand out to prospective volunteers, here it is in PostScript format: MathCircles.ps, and in Acrobat format: MathCircles.pdf. Here it is in HTML:

Here are some differences between a math circle and the usual math club:

- One school teacher usually runs all math club sessions. Leaders of math circles rotate. Circle leaders don't burn out, the kids see different approaches to math, and the leaders only need to prepare a few sessions that can be repeated at multiple circles. Circle leaders include teachers, professors, graduate or even undergraduate students, and other professional mathematicians.
- Circle sessions are focussed on a particular topic. ``Here are a bunch of unrelated old AIME problems.'' is usually not a suitable circle topic.
- There is homework, but exciting and seductive homework.
- Math clubs often prepare the math team for multiple-choice or short-answer competitions, without going through the problems in depth. Math circles prepare students for Olympiad-style problems like those of BAMO, the Bay Area Mathematical Olympiad. Circles teach kids to be mathematicians who solve essay-style problems requiring proof.

Make sure your circle session goes as well as possible:

- Hand out a set of problems a week before your session. Not too many, but seductive. Include an easy one and a challenging one.
- Try not to lecture. Even though introducing new theory and techniques is an integral part of math circles, your sessions should be as interactive as possible. Score yourself: 1 point per minute you talk; 5 points per minute a student talks; 10 points per minute you argue with a student; 50 points per minute the students argue among themselves.
- Divide students into groups of 2-4 to solve problems. Have them present their own solutions.
- Be encouraging, even about wrong answers. Find something positive in any attempt, but don't be satisfied until there is a rigorous solution. Wrap up each problem by reviewing the key steps and techniques used.
- If the kids don't answer your question immediately, don't just tell them the answer -- let them think. If they're still stuck, give hints, not solutions.

For details on Math Circles or on BAMO, see:

``Mathematical Circles (Russian Experience)'', by Fomin, Genkin, and Itenberg, American Mathematical Society, 1993.

or

http://mathcircle.berkeley.edu/bamoinfo.html